How Languages Are Learned 4th Edition Pdf

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For more details on this topic, see. Since the 1990s, large numbers of Albanian immigrants have arrived in Greece, forming the largest immigrant group (443,550 in the 2001 census). It is unofficially claimed that 1,000,000 Greeks are of Albanian descent, either by ancestry, marriage or immigration. Arvanitika [ ] Unlike the recent immigrants from Albania, the are a centuries-old local Albanian-speaking community in parts of Greece (and mainland Albania), especially in the south. Their language, now in danger of extinction, is known as. Their number has been estimated as between 30,000 and 140,000.

Many have been assimilated into modern Greek culture. Armenian [ ]. For more details on this topic, see. In Greece, dialects with standard is spoken; however, the speakers do not all identify their language with their national identity.

The 1951 census recorded 41,017 Macedonian speaking Greek citizens (most of them ). These Macedonian speakers in Greece vary on how they describe their language - most describe it as Macedonian and proclaim an Ethnic Macedonian national identity, although there are smaller groups, some of which describe it as Slavic and espouse a Greek national identity. Some historicals consider the local Macedonian dialect as a Bulgarian dialect. Some prefer to identify as dopii and their dialect as dopia which mean local or indigenous in Greek. Bulgarian [ ] In addition to the above, there are an estimated 30,000 native speakers of in according to, where it is referred to as. For more details on this topic, see.

In the population of 200,000 to 300,000, or Gypsy, people in Greece today, the is spoken widely. Romani is an similar to many Indian languages, due to the origins of the Roma people in northern. The dialect spoken in Greece (as well as in,, the,,,,, parts of, and ) is known as. There are 160,000 Romani speakers in Greece today (90% of the Roma population).

Russian [ ] has become widely spoken in Greece, particularly in and other parts of, mainly by wealthy Russians settled in Greece and Russian speaking economic migrants who went there in the 1990s. Russian is also spoken as a second or third language by many and from,, and who settled in Greece in large numbers in the same period. The older generation of settled mainly in, and elsewhere in in circa 1920 also speak Russian as a second language, as do most Greeks who had settled in, the, and other states following the, returning to Greece mainly in the early 1990s. Turkish [ ] is one of the most widely spoken minority languages in Greece today, with a speaker population of 128,380 people. These are usually defined as.

Traditionally, there were many more Turkish speakers in Greece, due to the long period of rule by the Ottoman Empire, but after the, a much smaller number remain, with even Turkish speaking forcibly expatriated to Turkey in 1923. The Turkish-speaking population of Greece is mainly concentrated in the region of. Turkish speakers also make up a large part of Greece's minority.

Greco-Turkic or Urum [ ] This refers to the hybrid Greco-Turkish dialect spoken by the so-called or those who define themselves as Greek from the (mainly Pontians) region of central and also to the Greco-Tatar dialect spoken by ethnic and the. Most speakers of Urum now live in mainly, having left Georgia in the 1990s, although many of those from Crimea and southeastern are still living in these areas. [ ] Georgian [ ] is widely spoken particularly in and other parts of by economic migrants who settled in Greece in the 1990s. As well as ethnic, these include those defined as or ethnic, from especially the south of the country and the region in the centre. [ ] References [ ].

How Languages Are Learned 4th Edition Pdf

Writing, a variant of a Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of, particularly the ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called. Questions concerning the, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated since and in. Thinkers such as have argued that language originated from while others like have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as argued that philosophy is really the study of language.

Major figures in linguistics include and. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000. However, any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and. Are or, but any language can be into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile – for example, in,,.

How Languages are Learned, by Patsy Lightbown and Nina Spada. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Download PDF to View View Larger. How Languages Are Learned. Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms (Cambridge Language Education). Douglas Brown - Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 5th Edition. Evaluating Your Students. Celce Murcia Mariam Teaching English as a Second or Foreign. Seedhouse Needs Analysis.

This is because human language is -independent. Depending on regarding the definition of language and meaning, when used as a general concept, 'language' may refer to the ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules. All languages rely on the process of to relate to particular., and tactile languages contain a system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or, and a system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances. Human language has the properties of and, and relies entirely on social convention and learning. Its complex structure affords a much wider range of expressions than any known system of. Language is thought to have originated when early started gradually changing their primate communication systems, acquiring the ability to form a and a shared. This development is sometimes thought to have coincided with an increase in brain volume, and many linguists see the structures of language as having evolved to serve specific communicative and social functions.

Language is processed in many different locations in the, but especially in and. Humans language through social interaction in early childhood, and children generally speak fluently by approximately three years old. The use of language is deeply entrenched in human. Therefore, in addition to its strictly communicative uses, language also has many social and cultural uses, such as signifying group,, as well as and. Languages and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be by modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had in order for the later developmental stages to occur. A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a. The is the most widely spoken and includes languages as diverse as, and; the, which includes, and the other, and; the, which includes,, and; the, which include, and, and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout; and the, which include,,, and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout the.

The languages of the that are spoken mostly in Southern India include and. Academic consensus holds that between 50% and 90% of languages spoken at the beginning of the 21st century will probably have become extinct by the year 2100. A conversation in Yet another definition sees language as a system of communication that enables humans to exchange verbal or symbolic utterances. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment. Explain grammatical structures by their communicative functions, and understand the grammatical structures of language to be the result of an adaptive process by which grammar was 'tailored' to serve the communicative needs of its users. This view of language is associated with the study of language in,, and interactive frameworks, as well as in and.

Functionalist theories tend to study grammar as dynamic phenomena, as structures that are always in the process of changing as they are employed by their speakers. This view places importance on the study of, or the classification of languages according to structural features, as it can be shown that processes of tend to follow trajectories that are partly dependent on typology. In the philosophy of language, the view of pragmatics as being central to language and meaning is often associated with later works and with ordinary language philosophers such as,,, and. Unique status of human language. Main articles: and Human language is unique in comparison to other forms of communication, such as those used by non-human. Communication systems used by other animals such as or are closed systems that consist of a finite, usually very limited, number of possible ideas that can be expressed.

In contrast, human language is open-ended and, meaning that it allows humans to produce a vast range of utterances from a finite set of elements, and to create new words and sentences. This is possible because human language is based on a dual code, in which a finite number of elements which are meaningless in themselves (e.g. Sounds, letters or gestures) can be combined to form an infinite number of larger units of meaning (words and sentences). However, one study has demonstrated that an Australian bird, the chestnut-crowned babbler, is capable of using the same acoustic elements in different arrangements to create two functionally distinct vocalizations.

Additionally, pied babblers have demonstrated the ability to generate two functionally distinct vocalisations composed of the same sound type, which can only be distinguished by the number of repeated elements. Several species of animals have proved to be able to acquire forms of communication through social learning: for instance a named learned to express itself using a set of symbolic. Similarly, many species of birds and whales learn their songs by imitating other members of their species. However, while some animals may acquire large numbers of words and symbols, none have been able to learn as many different signs as are generally known by an average 4 year old human, nor have any acquired anything resembling the complex grammar of human language. Human languages also differ from animal communication systems in that they employ, such as noun and verb, present and past, which may be used to express exceedingly complex meanings. Human language is also unique in having the property of: for example, a noun phrase can contain another noun phrase (as in '[[the chimpanzee]'s lips]') or a clause can contain another clause (as in '[I see [the dog is running]]').

Human language is also the only known natural communication system whose adaptability may be referred to as modality independent. This means that it can be used not only for communication through one channel or medium, but through several. For example, spoken language uses the auditive modality, whereas and writing use the visual modality, and writing uses the tactile modality.

Human language is also unique in being able to refer to abstract concepts and to imagined or hypothetical events as well as events that took place in the past or may happen in the future. This ability to refer to events that are not at the same time or place as the speech event is called, and while some animal communication systems can use displacement (such as the communication of that can communicate the location of sources of nectar that are out of sight), the degree to which it is used in human language is also considered unique. Oil on board, 1563. Humans have speculated about the origins of language throughout history. The of the is one such account; other cultures have different stories of how language arose.

Theories about the origin of language differ in regard to their basic assumptions about what language is. Some theories are based on the idea that language is so complex that one cannot imagine it simply appearing from nothing in its final form, but that it must have evolved from earlier pre-linguistic systems among our pre-human ancestors. These theories can be called continuity-based theories. The opposite viewpoint is that language is such a unique human trait that it cannot be compared to anything found among non-humans and that it must therefore have appeared suddenly in the transition from pre-hominids to early man. These theories can be defined as discontinuity-based. Similarly, theories based on Chomsky's generative view of language see language mostly as an innate faculty that is largely genetically encoded, whereas functionalist theories see it as a system that is largely cultural, learned through social interaction.

One prominent proponent of a discontinuity-based theory of human language origins is linguist and philosopher. Chomsky proposes that 'some random mutation took place, maybe after some strange cosmic ray shower, and it reorganized the brain, implanting a language organ in an otherwise primate brain.' Though cautioning against taking this story too literally, Chomsky insists that 'it may be closer to reality than many other fairy tales that are told about evolutionary processes, including language.' Continuity-based theories are held by a majority of scholars, but they vary in how they envision this development. Those who see language as being mostly innate, for example psychologist, hold the precedents to be, whereas those who see language as a socially learned tool of communication, such as psychologist, see it as having developed from in primates: either gestural or vocal communication to assist in cooperation.

Other continuity-based models see language as having developed from, a view already espoused by,,, and. A prominent proponent of this view is archaeologist. States that the age of spoken languages is estimated at 60,000 to 100,000 years and that: Researchers on the evolutionary origin of language generally find it plausible to suggest that language was invented only once, and that all modern spoken languages are thus in some way related, even if that relation can no longer be recovered. Because of limitations on the methods available for reconstruction. Because language emerged in the early of man, before the existence of any written records, its early development has left no historical traces, and it is believed that no comparable processes can be observed today. Theories that stress continuity often look at animals to see if, for example, primates display any traits that can be seen as analogous to what pre-human language must have been like.

And early human fossils can be inspected for traces of physical adaptation to language use or pre-linguistic forms of symbolic behaviour. Among the signs in human fossils that may suggest linguistic abilities are: the size of the brain relative to body mass, the presence of a capable of advanced sound production and the nature of tools and other manufactured artifacts. It was mostly undisputed that pre-human did not have communication systems significantly different from those found in in general. However, a 2017 study on challenges this belief. Scholarly opinions vary as to the developments since the appearance of the genus some 2.5 million years ago. Some scholars assume the development of primitive language-like systems (proto-language) as early as (2.3 million years ago) while others place the development of primitive symbolic communication only with (1.8 million years ago) or (0.6 million years ago), and the development of language proper with with the less than 100,000 years ago.

Main articles: and The study of language,, has been developing into a science since the first grammatical descriptions of particular languages in more than 2000 years ago, after the development of the. Modern linguistics is a science that concerns itself with all aspects of language, examining it from all of the theoretical viewpoints described above. Subdisciplines The academic study of language is conducted within many different disciplinary areas and from different theoretical angles, all of which inform modern approaches to linguistics. Language Areas of the brain. The is represented in orange, is represented in yellow, is represented in blue, is represented in green, and the is represented in pink.

The brain is the coordinating center of all linguistic activity; it controls both the production of linguistic cognition and of meaning and the mechanics of speech production. Nonetheless, our knowledge of the neurological bases for language is quite limited, though it has advanced considerably with the use of modern imaging techniques. The discipline of linguistics dedicated to studying the neurological aspects of language is called. Early work in neurolinguistics involved the study of language in people with brain lesions, to see how lesions in specific areas affect language and speech. In this way, neuroscientists in the 19th century discovered that two areas in the brain are crucially implicated in language processing.

The first area is, which is located in the posterior section of the in the dominant cerebral hemisphere. People with a lesion in this area of the brain develop, a condition in which there is a major impairment of language comprehension, while speech retains a natural-sounding rhythm and a relatively normal. The second area is, located in the posterior of the dominant hemisphere. People with a lesion to this area develop, meaning that they know what they want to say, they just cannot get it out.

They are typically able to understand what is being said to them, but unable to speak fluently. Other symptoms that may be present in expressive aphasia include problems with fluency, articulation, word-finding,, and producing and comprehending complex grammatical sentences, both orally and in writing. Those with this aphasia also exhibit ungrammatical speech and show inability to use syntactic information to determine the meaning of sentences. Both expressive and receptive aphasia also affect the use of sign language, in analogous ways to how they affect speech, with expressive aphasia causing signers to sign slowly and with incorrect grammar, whereas a signer with receptive aphasia will sign fluently, but make little sense to others and have difficulties comprehending others' signs. This shows that the impairment is specific to the ability to use language, not to the physiology used for speech production. With technological advances in the late 20th century, neurolinguists have also incorporated non-invasive techniques such as (fMRI) and to study language processing in individuals without impairments. Anatomy of speech.

Ancient inscription at Some of the properties that define human language as opposed to other communication systems are: the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign, meaning that there is no predictable connection between a linguistic sign and its meaning; the duality of the linguistic system, meaning that linguistic structures are built by combining elements into larger structures that can be seen as layered, e.g. How sounds build words and words build phrases; the discreteness of the elements of language, meaning that the elements out of which linguistic signs are constructed are discrete units, e.g. Sounds and words, that can be distinguished from each other and rearranged in different patterns; and the productivity of the linguistic system, meaning that the finite number of linguistic elements can be combined into a theoretically infinite number of combinations.

The rules by which signs can be combined to form words and phrases are called or grammar. The meaning that is connected to individual signs, morphemes, words, phrases, and texts is called. The division of language into separate but connected systems of sign and meaning goes back to the first linguistic studies of de Saussure and is now used in almost all branches of linguistics. Main articles:,, and Languages express meaning by relating a sign form to a meaning, or its content. Sign forms must be something that can be perceived, for example, in sounds, images, or gestures, and then related to a specific meaning by social convention.

Because the basic relation of meaning for most linguistic signs is based on social convention, linguistic signs can be considered arbitrary, in the sense that the convention is established socially and historically, rather than by means of a natural relation between a specific sign form and its meaning. Thus, languages must have a of signs related to specific meaning. The English sign 'dog' denotes, for example, a member of the species. In a language, the array of arbitrary signs connected to specific meanings is called the, and a single sign connected to a meaning is called a. Not all meanings in a language are represented by single words. Often, semantic concepts are embedded in the morphology or syntax of the language in the form of. All languages contain the semantic structure of: a structure that predicates a property, state, or action.

Traditionally, semantics has been understood to be the study of how speakers and interpreters assign to statements, so that meaning is understood to be the process by which a predicate can be said to be true or false about an entity, e.g. '[x [is y]]' or '[x [does y]]'.

Recently, this model of semantics has been complemented with more dynamic models of meaning that incorporate shared knowledge about the context in which a sign is interpreted into the production of meaning. Such models of meaning are explored in the field of. Sounds and symbols. Main article: Grammar is the study of how meaningful elements called within a language can be combined into utterances. Morphemes can either be free or bound.

If they are free to be moved around within an utterance, they are usually called, and if they are bound to other words or morphemes, they are called. The way in which meaningful elements can be combined within a language is governed by rules. The rules for the internal structure of words are called. The rules of the internal structure of phrases and sentences are called syntax. Grammatical categories. Main article: Grammar can be described as a system of categories and a set of rules that determine how categories combine to form different aspects of meaning.

Languages differ widely in whether they are encoded through the use of categories or lexical units. However, several categories are so common as to be nearly universal. Such universal categories include the encoding of the grammatical relations of participants and predicates by grammatically to a predicate, the encoding of and relations on predicates, and a system of governing reference to and distinction between speakers and addressees and those about whom they are speaking. Word classes Languages organize their into classes according to their functions and positions relative to other parts.

All languages, for instance, make a basic distinction between a group of words that prototypically denotes things and concepts and a group of words that prototypically denotes actions and events. The first group, which includes English words such as 'dog' and 'song', are usually called. The second, which includes 'run' and 'sing', are called.

Another common category is the: words that describe properties or qualities of nouns, such as 'red' or 'big'. Word classes can be 'open' if new words can continuously be added to the class, or relatively 'closed' if there is a fixed number of words in a class.

In English, the class of pronouns is closed, whereas the class of adjectives is open, since an infinite number of adjectives can be constructed from verbs (e.g. 'saddened') or nouns (e.g. With the -like suffix, as in 'noun-like'). In other languages such as, the situation is the opposite, and new pronouns can be constructed, whereas the number of adjectives is fixed.

Word classes also carry out differing functions in grammar. Prototypically, verbs are used to construct, while nouns are used as of predicates. In a sentence such as 'Sally runs', the predicate is 'runs', because it is the word that predicates a specific state about its argument 'Sally'. Some verbs such as 'curse' can take two arguments, e.g. 'Sally cursed John'.

A predicate that can only take a single argument is called, while a predicate that can take two arguments is called. Many other word classes exist in different languages, such as like 'and' that serve to join two sentences, that introduce a noun, such as 'wow!' , or like 'splash' that mimic the sound of some event. Some languages have positionals that describe the spatial position of an event or entity. Many languages have that identify countable nouns as belonging to a particular type or having a particular shape. For instance, in, the general noun classifier for humans is nin (人), and it is used for counting humans, whatever they are called: san-nin no gakusei (三人の学生) lit.

'3 human-classifier of student' — three students For trees, it would be: san-bon no ki (三本の木) lit. '3 classifier-for-long-objects of tree' — three trees Morphology In linguistics, the study of the internal structure of complex words and the processes by which words are formed is called. In most languages, it is possible to construct complex words that are built of several. For instance, the English word 'unexpected' can be analyzed as being composed of the three morphemes 'un-', 'expect' and '-ed'. Morphemes can be classified according to whether they are independent morphemes, so-called, or whether they can only co-occur attached to other morphemes. These bound morphemes or can be classified according to their position in relation to the root: precede the root, follow the root, and are inserted in the middle of a root.

Affixes serve to modify or elaborate the meaning of the root. Some languages change the meaning of words by changing the phonological structure of a word, for example, the English word 'run', which in the past tense is 'ran'. This process is called. Furthermore, morphology distinguishes between the process of, which modifies or elaborates on a word, and the process of, which creates a new word from an existing one. In English, the verb 'sing' has the inflectional forms 'singing' and 'sung', which are both verbs, and the derivational form 'singer', which is a noun derived from the verb with the agentive suffix '-er'. Languages differ widely in how much they rely on morphological processes of word formation.

In some languages, for example, Chinese, there are no morphological processes, and all grammatical information is encoded syntactically by forming strings of single words. This type of morpho-syntax is often called, or analytic, because there is almost a full correspondence between a single word and a single aspect of meaning. Most languages have words consisting of several morphemes, but they vary in the degree to which morphemes are discrete units.

In many languages, notably in most Indo-European languages, single morphemes may have several distinct meanings that cannot be analyzed into smaller segments. For example, in Latin, the word bonus, or 'good', consists of the root bon-, meaning 'good', and the suffix - us, which indicates masculine gender, singular number, and case. These languages are called, because several meanings may be fused into a single morpheme.

The opposite of fusional languages are which construct words by stringing morphemes together in chains, but with each morpheme as a discrete semantic unit. An example of such a language is, where for example, the word evlerinizden, or 'from your houses', consists of the morphemes, ev-ler-iniz-den with the meanings house-plural-your-from.

The languages that rely on morphology to the greatest extent are traditionally called. They may express the equivalent of an entire English sentence in a single word. For example, in the single word nafahmidamesh means I didn't understand it consisting of morphemes na-fahm-id-am-esh with the meanings, ''. As another example with more complexity, in the word tuntussuqatarniksatengqiggtuq, which means 'He had not yet said again that he was going to hunt reindeer', the word consists of the morphemes tuntu-ssur-qatar-ni-ksaite-ngqiggte-uq with the meanings, 'reindeer-hunt-future-say-negation-again-third.person.singular.indicative', and except for the morpheme tuntu ('reindeer') none of the other morphemes can appear in isolation. Many languages use morphology to cross-reference words within a sentence.

This is sometimes called. For example, in many Indo-European languages, adjectives must cross-reference the noun they modify in terms of number, case, and gender, so that the Latin adjective bonus, or 'good', is inflected to agree with a noun that is masculine gender, singular number, and nominative case. In many polysynthetic languages, verbs cross-reference their subjects and objects. In these types of languages, a single verb may include information that would require an entire sentence in English. For example, in the phrase ikusi nauzu, or 'you saw me', the past tense auxiliary verb n-au-zu (similar to English 'do') agrees with both the subject (you) expressed by the n- prefix, and with the object (me) expressed by the – zu suffix. The sentence could be directly transliterated as 'see you-did-me' Syntax. In addition to word classes, a sentence can be analyzed in terms of grammatical functions: 'The cat' is the of the phrase, 'on the mat' is a phrase, and 'sat' is the core of the.

Another way in which languages convey meaning is through the order of words within a sentence. The grammatical rules for how to produce new sentences from words that are already known is called syntax. The syntactical rules of a language determine why a sentence in English such as 'I love you' is meaningful, but '*love you I' is not. Syntactical rules determine how word order and sentence structure is constrained, and how those constraints contribute to meaning.

For example, in English, the two sentences 'the slaves were cursing the master' and 'the master was cursing the slaves' mean different things, because the role of the grammatical subject is encoded by the noun being in front of the verb, and the role of object is encoded by the noun appearing after the verb. Conversely, in, both Dominus servos vituperabat and Servos vituperabat dominus mean 'the master was reprimanding the slaves', because servos, or 'slaves', is in the, showing that they are the of the sentence, and dominus, or 'master', is in the, showing that he is the subject. Latin uses morphology to express the distinction between subject and object, whereas English uses word order. Another example of how syntactic rules contribute to meaning is the rule of, which exists in many languages. This rule explains why when in English, the phrase 'John is talking to Lucy' is turned into a question, it becomes 'Who is John talking to?' , and not 'John is talking to who?'

The latter example may be used as a way of placing on 'who', thereby slightly altering the meaning of the question. Syntax also includes the rules for how complex sentences are structured by grouping words together in units, called, that can occupy different places in a larger syntactic structure.

Sentences can be described as consisting of phrases connected in a tree structure, connecting the phrases to each other at different levels. To the right is a graphic representation of the syntactic analysis of the English sentence 'the cat sat on the mat'. The sentence is analyzed as being constituted by a noun phrase, a verb, and a prepositional phrase; the prepositional phrase is further divided into a preposition and a noun phrase, and the noun phrases consist of an article and a noun.

The reason sentences can be seen as being composed of phrases is because each phrase would be moved around as a single element if syntactic operations were carried out. For example, 'the cat' is one phrase, and 'on the mat' is another, because they would be treated as single units if a decision was made to emphasize the location by moving forward the prepositional phrase: '[And] on the mat, the cat sat'. There are many different formalist and functionalist frameworks that propose theories for describing syntactic structures, based on different assumptions about what language is and how it should be described. Each of them would analyze a sentence such as this in a different manner. Typology and universals. Main articles: and Languages can be classified in relation to their grammatical types.

Languages that belong to different families nonetheless often have features in common, and these shared features tend to correlate. For example, languages can be classified on the basis of their basic, the relative order of the, and its constituents in a normal indicative. In English, the basic order is: 'The snake(S) bit(V) the man(O)', whereas for example, the corresponding sentence in the would be d̪uyugu n̪ama d̪ayn yiːy (snake man bit),. Word order type is relevant as a typological parameter, because basic word order type corresponds with other syntactic parameters, such as the relative order of nouns and adjectives, or of the use of. Such correlations are called.

For example, most (but not all) languages that are of the type have postpositions rather than prepositions, and have adjectives before nouns. All languages structure sentences into Subject, Verb, and Object, but languages differ in the way they classify the relations between actors and actions.

English uses the word typology: in English transitive clauses, the subjects of both intransitive sentences ('I run') and transitive sentences ('I love you') are treated in the same way, shown here by the nominative pronoun I. Some languages, called, Gamilaraay among them, distinguish instead between Agents and Patients. In ergative languages, the single participant in an intransitive sentence, such as 'I run', is treated the same as the patient in a transitive sentence, giving the equivalent of 'me run'. Only in transitive sentences would the equivalent of the pronoun 'I' be used.

In this way the semantic roles can map onto the grammatical relations in different ways, grouping an intransitive subject either with Agents (accusative type) or Patients (ergative type) or even making each of the three roles differently, which is called the. The shared features of languages which belong to the same typological class type may have arisen completely independently. Their co-occurrence might be due to universal laws governing the structure of natural languages, 'language universals', or they might be the result of languages evolving convergent solutions to the recurring communicative problems that humans use language to solve. Social contexts of use and transmission.

The in, where the phrase 'I love you' is featured in 250 languages of the world While humans have the ability to learn any language, they only do so if they grow up in an environment in which language exists and is used by others. Language is therefore dependent on in which children from their elders and peers and themselves transmit language to their own children. Languages are used by those who speak them to and to solve a plethora of social tasks. Many aspects of language use can be seen to be adapted specifically to these purposes.

Due to the way in which language is transmitted between generations and within communities, language perpetually changes, diversifying into new languages or converging due to. The process is similar to the process of, where the process of descent with modification leads to the formation of a.

However, languages differ from biological organisms in that they readily incorporate elements from other languages through the process of, as speakers of different languages come into contact. Humans also frequently speak more than one language, acquiring their or languages as children, or learning new languages as they grow up. Because of the increased language contact in the globalizing world, many small languages are becoming as their speakers shift to other languages that afford the possibility to participate in larger and more influential speech communities. Usage and meaning. Main article: The semantic study of meaning assumes that meaning is located in a relation between signs and meanings that are firmly established through social convention. However, semantics does not study the way in which social conventions are made and affect language. Rather, when studying the way in which words and signs are used, it is often the case that words have different meanings, depending on the social context of use.

An important example of this is the process called, which describes the way in which certain words refer to entities through their relation between a specific point in time and space when the word is uttered. Such words are, for example, the word, 'I' (which designates the person speaking), 'now' (which designates the moment of speaking), and 'here' (which designates the position of speaking).

Signs also change their meanings over time, as the conventions governing their usage gradually change. The study of how the meaning of linguistic expressions changes depending on context is called pragmatics.

Deixis is an important part of the way that we use language to point out entities in the world. Pragmatics is concerned with the ways in which language use is patterned and how these patterns contribute to meaning. For example, in all languages, linguistic expressions can be used not just to transmit information, but to perform actions. Certain actions are made only through language, but nonetheless have tangible effects, e.g. The act of 'naming', which creates a new name for some entity, or the act of 'pronouncing someone man and wife', which creates a social contract of marriage. These types of acts are called, although they can of course also be carried out through writing or hand signing.

The form of linguistic expression often does not correspond to the meaning that it actually has in a social context. For example, if at a dinner table a person asks, 'Can you reach the salt?'

, that is, in fact, not a question about the length of the arms of the one being addressed, but a request to pass the salt across the table. This meaning is implied by the context in which it is spoken; these kinds of effects of meaning are called. These social rules for which ways of using language are considered appropriate in certain situations and how utterances are to be understood in relation to their context vary between communities, and learning them is a large part of acquiring in a language.

Main articles:,,, and All healthy, human beings learn to use language. Children acquire the language or languages used around them: whichever languages they receive sufficient exposure to during childhood. The development is essentially the same for children acquiring. This learning process is referred to as first-language acquisition, since unlike many other kinds of learning, it requires no direct teaching or specialized study. In, naturalist called this process 'an instinctive tendency to acquire an art'. A lesson at Kituwah Academy on the in, where the is the medium of instruction from on up and students learn it as a First language acquisition proceeds in a fairly regular sequence, though there is a wide degree of variation in the timing of particular stages among normally developing infants. From birth, newborns respond more readily to human speech than to other sounds.

Around one month of age, babies appear to be able to distinguish between different. Around six months of age, a child will begin, producing the speech sounds or of the languages used around them. Words appear around the age of 12 to 18 months; the average of an eighteen-month-old child is around 50. A child's first are (literally 'whole-sentences'), utterances that use just one word to communicate some idea.

Several months after a child begins producing words, he or she will produce two-word utterances, and within a few more months will begin to produce, or short sentences that are less complex than adult speech, but that do show regular syntactic structure. From roughly the age of three to five years, a child's ability to speak or sign is refined to the point that it resembles adult language. Studies published in 2013 have indicated that unborn are capable of language acquisition to some degree. Acquisition of second and additional languages can come at any age, through exposure in daily life or courses. Children learning a second language are more likely to achieve native-like fluency than adults, but in general, it is very rare for someone speaking a second language to pass completely for a native speaker. An important difference between first language acquisition and additional language acquisition is that the process of additional language acquisition is influenced by languages that the learner already knows. The Conversation (c.

1935) Languages, understood as the particular set of speech norms of a particular community, are also a part of the larger culture of the community that speaks them. Languages differ not only in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar, but also through having different 'cultures of speaking.' Humans use language as a way of signalling identity with one cultural group as well as difference from others.

Even among speakers of one language, several different ways of using the language exist, and each is used to signal affiliation with particular subgroups within a larger culture. Linguists and anthropologists, particularly,, and have specialized in studying how ways of speaking vary between. Linguists use the term ' to refer to the different ways of speaking a language. This term includes geographically or socioculturally defined as well as the or of. Linguistic anthropologists and sociologists of language define communicative style as the ways that language is used and understood within a particular culture.

Because norms for language use are shared by members of a specific group, communicative style also becomes a way of displaying and constructing group identity. Linguistic differences may become salient markers of divisions between social groups, for example, speaking a language with a particular accent may imply membership of an ethnic minority or social class, one's area of origin, or status as a second language speaker. These kinds of differences are not part of the linguistic system, but are an important part of how people use language as a social tool for constructing groups. However, many languages also have grammatical conventions that signal the social position of the speaker in relation to others through the use of registers that are related to social hierarchies or divisions.

In many languages, there are stylistic or even grammatical differences between the ways men and women speak, between age groups, or between, just as some languages employ different words depending on who is listening. For example, in the Australian language, a married man must use a special set of words to refer to everyday items when speaking in the presence of his mother-in-law. Some cultures, for example, have elaborate systems of 'social ', or systems of signalling social distance through linguistic means. In English, social deixis is shown mostly through distinguishing between addressing some people by first name and others by surname, and in titles such as 'Mrs.' , 'boy', 'Doctor', or 'Your Honor', but in other languages, such systems may be highly complex and codified in the entire grammar and vocabulary of the language. For instance, in languages of east Asia such as,, and, different words are used according to whether a speaker is addressing someone of higher or lower rank than oneself in a ranking system with animals and children ranking the lowest and gods and members of royalty as the highest.

Writing, literacy and technology. An inscription of using, an developed by Christian missionaries for Indigenous Canadian languages Throughout history a number of different ways of representing language in graphic media have been invented. These are called. The use of writing has made language even more useful to humans. It makes it possible to store large amounts of information outside of the human body and retrieve it again, and it allows communication across distances that would otherwise be impossible. Many languages conventionally employ different genres, styles, and registers in written and spoken language, and in some communities, writing traditionally takes place in an entirely different language than the one spoken. There is some evidence that the use of writing also has effects on the cognitive development of humans, perhaps because acquiring literacy generally requires explicit and.

The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the in the late. The archaic and the are generally considered to be the earliest writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400–3200 BC with the earliest coherent texts from about. It is generally agreed that Sumerian writing was an independent invention; however, it is debated whether Egyptian writing was developed completely independently of Sumerian, or was a case of.

A similar debate exists for the, which developed around 1200 BC. The (including among others and ) are generally believed to have had independent origins. Main article: One important source of language change is contact and resulting of linguistic traits between languages. Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or interact on a regular basis. Is likely to have been the norm throughout and most people in the modern world are multilingual.

Before the rise of the concept of the, monolingualism was characteristic mainly of populations inhabiting small islands. But with the ideology that made one people, one state, and one language the most desirable political arrangement, monolingualism started to spread throughout the world. Nonetheless, there are only 250 countries in the world corresponding to some 6000 languages, which means that most countries are multilingual and most languages therefore exist in close contact with other languages. When speakers of different languages interact closely, it is typical for their languages to influence each other. Through sustained language contact over long periods, linguistic traits diffuse between languages, and languages belonging to different families may converge to become more similar. In areas where many languages are in close contact, this may lead to the formation of in which unrelated languages share a number of linguistic features. A number of such language areas have been documented, among them, the, the, and the.

Also, larger areas such as, Europe, and Southeast Asia have sometimes been considered language areas, because of widespread diffusion of specific. Language contact may also lead to a variety of other linguistic phenomena, including,, and (replacement of much of the native vocabulary with that of another language). In situations of extreme and sustained language contact, it may lead to the formation of new that cannot be considered to belong to a single language family. One type of mixed language called occurs when adult speakers of two different languages interact on a regular basis, but in a situation where neither group learns to speak the language of the other group fluently. In such a case, they will often construct a communication form that has traits of both languages, but which has a simplified grammatical and phonological structure. The language comes to contain mostly the grammatical and phonological categories that exist in both languages. Pidgin languages are defined by not having any native speakers, but only being spoken by people who have another language as their first language.

But if a Pidgin language becomes the main language of a speech community, then eventually children will grow up learning the pidgin as their first language. As the generation of child learners grow up, the pidgin will often be seen to change its structure and acquire a greater degree of complexity. This type of language is generally called a. An example of such mixed languages is, the official language of, which originally arose as a Pidgin based on English and; others are, the French-based creole language spoken in, and, a mixed language of Canada, based on the Native American language and French.

Linguistic diversity. See also: and Language Native speakers (millions) 848 329 328 250 221 182 181 144 122 84.3 defines a 'living language' as 'one that has at least one speaker for whom it is their first language'. The exact number of known living languages varies from 6,000 to 7,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of 'language', and in particular, on how one defines the distinction between languages and. As of 2016, Ethnologue cataloged 7,097 living human languages.

The Ethnologue establishes linguistic groups based on studies of, and therefore often includes more categories than more conservative classifications. For example, the that most scholars consider a single language with several dialects is classified as two distinct languages (Danish and ) by the Ethnologue. According to the Ethnologue, 389 languages (nearly 6%) have more than a million speakers. These languages together account for 94% of the world's population, whereas 94% of the world's languages account for the remaining 6% of the global population. To the right is a table of the world's 10 most spoken languages with population estimates from the Ethnologue (2009 figures).

Languages and dialects. Sign outside the 's office in, written in the four official languages of the city:,,, and There is no between a language and a, notwithstanding a famous attributed to linguist that '. For example, national boundaries frequently override linguistic difference in determining whether two linguistic varieties are languages or dialects. Hakka, and are, for example, often classified as 'dialects' of Chinese, even though they are more different from each other than is from. Before the, was considered a single language with two dialects, but now and are considered different languages and employ different writing systems. In other words, the distinction may hinge on political considerations as much as on cultural differences, distinctive, or degree of. Language families of the world.

Install G27 On Mac. Principal language families of the world (and in some cases geographic groups of families). For greater detail, see. The world's languages can be grouped into consisting of languages that can be shown to have common ancestry. Linguists recognize many hundreds of language families, although some of them can possibly be grouped into larger units as more evidence becomes available and in-depth studies are carried out. At present, there are also dozens of: languages that cannot be shown to be related to any other languages in the world. Among them are, spoken in Europe, of, of Mexico, of Japan, of, and many others.

The language family of the world that has the most speakers is the, spoken by 46% of the world's population. This family includes major world languages like,,, and (/).

The Indo-European family achieved prevalence first during the (c. 400–800 AD), [ ] and subsequently through the, which brought the Indo-European languages to a politically and often numerically dominant position in the and much of.

The are spoken by 20% of the world's population and include many of the languages of East Asia, including Hakka,,, and hundreds of smaller languages. Is home to a large number of language families, the largest of which is the, which includes such languages as,, and. Speakers of the Niger-Congo languages account for 6.9% of the world's population.

A similar number of people speak the, which include the populous such as,, and the languages of the region, such as the and. The are spoken by 5.5% of the world's population and stretch from to all the way to. It includes such languages as,,, and many of the indigenous languages of and.

The Austronesian languages are considered to have originated in Taiwan around 3000 BC and spread through the Oceanic region through island-hopping, based on an advanced nautical technology. Other populous language families are the of (among them and ), the of Central Asia (such as ), the (among them ), and of (including ). The areas of the world in which there is the greatest linguistic diversity, such as the Americas,,, and South-Asia, contain hundreds of small language families.

These areas together account for the majority of the world's languages, though not the majority of speakers. In the Americas, some of the largest language families include the,, and families of South America, the,, and of, and the,, and language families of. In Australia, most indigenous languages belong to the, whereas New Guinea is home to a large number of small families and isolates, as well as a number of Austronesian languages. Language endangerment.

Together, the eight countries in red contain more than 50% of the world's languages. The areas in blue are the most linguistically diverse in the world, and the locations of most of the world's endangered languages. Occurs when a language is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or to speaking another language. Occurs when the language has no more native speakers, and becomes a.

If eventually no one speaks the language at all, it becomes an. While languages have always gone extinct throughout human history, they have been disappearing at an accelerated rate in the 20th and 21st centuries due to the processes of and, where the economically powerful languages dominate other languages. The more commonly spoken languages dominate the less commonly spoken languages, so the less commonly spoken languages eventually disappear from populations. The total number of languages in the world is not known.

Estimates vary depending on many factors. The consensus is that there are between 6,000 and 7,000 languages spoken as of 2010, and that between 50–90% of those will have become extinct by the year 2100. The, those spoken by more than 50 million speakers each, are spoken by 50% of the world's population, whereas many of the other languages are spoken by small communities, most of them with less than 10,000 speakers. The (UNESCO) operates with five levels of language endangerment: 'safe', 'vulnerable' (not spoken by children outside the home), 'definitely endangered' (not spoken by children), 'severely endangered' (only spoken by the oldest generations), and 'critically endangered' (spoken by few members of the oldest generation, often ). Notwithstanding claims that the world would be better off if most adopted a single common, such as English or, there is a consensus that the loss of languages harms the cultural diversity of the world. It is a common belief, going back to the biblical narrative of the in the, that linguistic diversity causes political conflict, but this is contradicted by the fact that many of the world's major episodes of violence have taken place in situations with low linguistic diversity, such as the and, or the genocide of, whereas many of the most stable political units have been highly multilingual. Many projects aim to prevent or slow this loss by endangered languages and promoting education and literacy in minority languages.

Across the world, many countries have enacted to protect and stabilize the language of indigenous. A minority of linguists have argued that language loss is a natural process that should not be counteracted, and that documenting endangered languages for posterity is sufficient. • The gorilla reportedly uses as many as 1000 words in, and understands 2000 words of spoken English. There are some doubts about whether her use of signs is based on complex understanding or simple;. • 'Functional grammar analyzes grammatical structure, as do formal and structural grammar; but it also analyzes the entire communicative situation: the purpose of the speech event, its participants, its discourse context. Functionalists maintain that the communicative situation motivates, constrains, explains, or otherwise determines grammatical structure, and that a structural or formal approaches not merely limited to an artificially restricted data base, but is inadequate even as a structural account. Functional grammar, then, differs from formal and structural grammar in that it purports not to model but to explain; and the explanation is grounded in the communicative situation'; • The prefixed asterisk * conventionally indicates that the sentence is ungrammatical, i.e.

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