Global Android version distribution as of August 2017. As of November, is the most widely used version of Android, running on 30.9% of all Android devices accessing, while runs on 27.2% of devices (79.0% on it or newer). The version history of the began with the public release of the Android in November 5, 2007.
The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008. Android is continually developed by and the, and it has seen a number of to its base operating system since the initial release. Versions 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under specific.
Android code names are confectionery-themed and have been in alphabetical order since 2009's Android 1.5 Cupcake, with the most recent major version being Android 8.0 Oreo, released in August 2017. Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Pre-commercial release versions The development of Android started in 2003 by Android, Inc., which was purchased by Google in 2005.
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Alpha There were at least two internal releases of the software inside Google and the OHA before the beta version was released. The code names 'Astro Boy' and 'Bender' were used internally for some pre-1.0 milestones. Dan Morrill created some of the first mascot logos, but the current Android logo was designed by Irina Blok. The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived the confectionery-themed naming scheme that has been used for the majority of the public releases, starting with Android 1.5 Cupcake. Beta The was released on November 5, 2007, while the (SDK) was released on November 12, 2007. The November 5 date is popularly celebrated as Android's 'birthday'.
Android 1.0 (API 1) Android 1.0, the first commercial version of the software, was released on September 23, 2008. The first commercially available Android device was the.
Android 1.0 incorporated the following features: Version Release date Features 1.0 September 23, 2008 • allowed application downloads and updates through the Market application • to show, zoom and pan full and web pages – multiple pages show as windows ('cards') • Camera support – however, this version lacked the option to change the camera's resolution, white balance, quality, etc. Android 1.1 (API 2) On February 9, 2009, the Android 1.1 update was released, initially for the HTC Dream only. Android 1.1 was known as ' internally, though this name was not used officially. The update resolved bugs, changed the Android and added a number of features: Version Release date Features 1.1 February 9, 2009 • Details and reviews available when a user searches for businesses on Maps • Longer in-call screen timeout default when using the speakerphone, plus ability to show/hide dialpad • Ability to save attachments in messages • Support added for marquee in system layouts. (API 3) On April 27, 2009, the Android 1.5 update was released, based on 2.6.27.
This was the first release to officially use a codename based on a dessert item ('Cupcake'), a theme which would be used for all releases henceforth. (API 4) On September 15, 2009, Android 1.6 – dubbed Donut – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29. (API 5) On October 26, 2009, the Android 2.0 SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29 and codenamed. Changes include the ones listed below. (API 8) On May 20, 2010, the SDK for Android 2.2 (Froyo, short for ) was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.32.
(API 9) On December 6, 2010, the Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.35. (API 10) Version Release date Features Image(s) 2.3.3 February 9, 2011 • Several improvements and API fixes Android 2.3 home screen 2.3.4 April 28, 2011 • Support for voice or video chat using • Open Accessory Library support. Open Accessory was introduced in 3.1 (Honeycomb) but the Open Accessory Library grants 2.3.4 added support when connecting to a USB peripheral with compatible software and a compatible application on the device • Switched the default encryption for SSL from AES256-SHA to RC4-MD5. 2.3.5 July 25, 2011 • Improved network performance for the 4G, among other fixes and improvements • Fixed Bluetooth bug on • Improved Gmail application • Shadow animations for list scrolling • Camera software enhancements • Improved battery efficiency 2.3.6 September 2, 2011 • Fixed a voice search bug 2.3.7 September 21, 2011 • support for the Nexus S 4G.
(API 11) On February 22, 2011, the Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK – the first -only Android update – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.36. The first device featuring this version, the tablet, was released on February 24, 2011. The update's features included: Version Release date Features Image(s) 3.0 February 22, 2011 • Optimized tablet support with a new “holographic” user interface • New Easter egg.
This time it is an image of a Tron themed bumblebee. (API 13) Version Release date Features Image(s) 3.2 July 15, 2011 • Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range of tablets • Increased ability of applications to access files on the SD card, e.g. (API 14) The SDK for Android 4.0.1 (Ice Cream Sandwich), based on Linux kernel 3.0.1, was publicly released on October 19, 2011.
Google's Gabe Cohen stated that Android 4.0 was 'theoretically compatible' with any Android 2.3.x device in production at that time. The for Android 4.0 became available on November 14, 2011. Ice Cream Sandwich was the last version to officially support '. (API 16) Google announced Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) at the conference on June 27, 2012. Based on Linux kernel 3.0.31, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary aim of improving the functionality and performance of the user interface.
The performance improvement involved 'Project Butter', which uses touch anticipation,, extended timing and a fixed frame rate of 60 to create a fluid and 'buttery-smooth' UI. Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was released to the on July 9, 2012, and the tablet, the first device to run Jelly Bean, was released on July 13, 2012.
(API 17) Google was expected to announce Jelly Bean 4.2 at an event in on October 29, 2012, but the event was cancelled due to. Instead of rescheduling the live event, Google announced the new version with a press release, under the slogan 'A new flavor of Jelly Bean'. Jelly Bean 4.2 was based on Linux kernel 3.4.0, and debuted on Google's and, which were released on November 13, 2012.
Version Release date Features 4.2 November 13, 2012 • improvements, including widget support and the ability to swipe directly to camera • Notification power controls ('Quick Settings') • 'Daydream', showing information when idle or docked • Multiple user accounts (tablets only) • Rewritten, switching from to open source, allowing improved support for multiple displays and wireless display () • Native, always-on and application verification. A new stack was added at the same time. • Accessibility improvements: triple-tap to magnify the entire screen, pan and zoom with two fingers.
(API 18) Google released Jelly Bean 4.3 under the slogan 'An even sweeter Jelly Bean' on July 24, 2013, during an event in called 'Breakfast with '. Most Nexus devices received the update within a week, although the tablet was the first device to officially ship with it. A minor bugfix update was released on August 22, 2013. (API 19) Google announced Android 4.4 on September 3, 2013. Although initially under the 'Key Lime Pie' ('KLP') codename, the name was changed because 'very few people actually know the taste of a.' Some technology bloggers also expected the 'Key Lime Pie' release to be Android 5.
KitKat debuted on Google's on October 31, 2013, and was optimized to run on a greater range of devices than earlier Android versions, having 512 MB of RAM as a recommended minimum; those improvements were known as 'Project Svelte' internally at Google. The required minimum amount of RAM available to Android is 340 MB, and all devices with less than 512 MB of RAM must report themselves as 'low RAM' devices. Version Release date Features Image(s) 4.4 October 31, 2013 • Refreshed interface with white elements instead of blue • Clock no longer shows bold hours; all digits are thin.
The H, M, and S markings for the stopwatch and timer have been removed, leaving just the numbers. • Ability for applications to trigger translucency in the navigation and status bars • Ability for applications to use 'immersive mode' to keep the navigation and status bars hidden while maintaining user interaction • Action overflow menu buttons are always visible, even on devices with a 'Menu' key, which was officially deprecated by Android 4.0. (API 21) Android 5.0 'Lollipop' was unveiled under the codename 'Android L' on June 25, 2014, during. It became available as official (OTA) updates on November 12, 2014, for select devices that run distributions of Android serviced by Google, including and devices. Its source code was made available on November 3, 2014.
Lollipop features a redesigned user interface built around a responsive referred to as '. Other changes include improvements to the notifications, which can be accessed from the lockscreen and displayed within applications as top-of-the-screen banners. Furthermore, Google made internal changes to the platform, with the (ART) officially replacing for improved application performance, and with changes intended to improve and optimize battery usage, known internally as. (API 22) Version Release date Features Image(s) 5.1 March 9, 2015 • Improvements and bug-fixes to the Overview screen • Ability to join Wi-Fi networks and control paired Bluetooth devices from quick settings • Official support for •: if a device is lost or stolen it will remain locked until the owner signs into their Google account, even if the device is reset to factory settings. •, available between compatible 4G LTE devices running Android 5.1 • Improvements to the notification priority system, to more closely replicate the that was removed in Android 5.0. Android 5.1 home screen 5.1.1 April 21, 2015 • Various bugfixes • Native support. (API 23) Android 6.0 'Marshmallow' was unveiled under the codename 'Android M' during on May 28, 2015, for the and phones, tablet, and set-top box, under the build number MPZ44Q.
The third developer preview (MPA44G) was released on August 17, 2015 for the Nexus 5, Nexus 6, Nexus 9 and Nexus Player devices, and was updated to MPA44I that brought fixes related to profiles. Version Release date Features Image(s) 6.0 October 5, 2015 • Contextual search from keywords within apps. (API 24) Android 'Nougat' (codenamed N in-development) is the major 7.0 release of the Android operating system.
It was first released as a developer preview on March 9, 2016, with factory images for current Nexus devices, as well as with the new 'Android Beta Program' which allows supported devices to be upgraded directly to the Android Nougat beta via over-the-air update. Final release was on August 22, 2016. The final preview build was released on July 18, 2016, with the build number NPD90G. Version Release date Features Image(s) 7.0 August 22, 2016 • and skin tone modifier support (and exposes a subset of APIs).
(API 25) On October 19, 2016, Google released Android 7.1.1 as a developer preview for the Nexus 5X, Nexus 6P and the Pixel C. A second preview became available on November 22, 2016, before the final version was released to the public on December 5, 2016. (API 26) Android Oreo is the 8th major release of the Android operating system. It was first released as a developer preview on March 21, 2017, with factory images for current Nexus and Pixel devices.
Ware Task Manager Scheduling Program here. The final developer preview was released on July 24, 2017, with the stable version released in August 2017. (API 27) Android Oreo is the 8th major release of the Android operating system. It is first released as a developer preview on October 25th, 2017, with factory images for current Nexus and Pixel devices. The developer preview is now available for Nexus and Pixel devices. See also: The main hardware platform for Android is the ( and architectures; formerly also ARMv5), with and architectures also officially supported in later versions of Android.
Unofficial project used to provide support for the x86 and MIPS architectures ahead of the official support. Since 2012, Android devices with processors began to appear, including phones and tablets. While gaining support for 64-bit platforms, Android was first made to run on 64-bit x86 and then on. Since Android 5.0 Lollipop, 64-bit variants of all platforms are supported in addition to the 32-bit variants. Requirements for the minimum amount of for devices running Android 7.1 depend on screen size and density and type of CPU, ranging from 816 MB–1.8 GB for 64-bit and 512 MB–1.3 GB for 32-bit meaning in practice 1 GB for the most common type of display (while minimum for Android watch is 416 MB).
The recommendation for Android 4.4 is to have at least 512 MB of RAM, while for 'low RAM' devices 340 MB is the required minimum amount that does not include memory dedicated to various hardware components such as the. Android 4.4 requires a, or architecture processor (latter two through unofficial ports), together with an 2.0 compatible (GPU). Android supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, 3.2 and as of latest major version.
Some applications may explicitly require a certain version of the OpenGL ES, and suitable GPU hardware is required to run such applications. Android used to require an camera, which was relaxed to a camera if present at all, since the camera was dropped as a requirement entirely (except for smartphones) when Android started to be used on. • The 2.3.6 update had the side-effect of impairing the Wi-Fi hotspot functionality of many Canadian Nexus S phones. Google acknowledged this problem and fixed it in late September.
• For Canadian consumers, 4.0.2 reportedly created a bug on the Galaxy Nexus that crashed the application market when users attempted to view details of any Android application. It also inadvertently reduced the capabilities of the Nexus phone. • Lowest supported x86 generation is the, also called i686. • Supported is revision 1 of MIPS32 and revision 6 for 64-bit MIPS64 References.