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There are well-specified rules for coming up with valid credit card account numbers, and at most, say, 60 valid expiration dates (12 months × 5 years into the future). Once an attacker has a valid credit card number and expiration date, there are only 10⁴ = 10,000 four-digit security codes possible, which the attacker tries with parallel requests to hundreds of websites. Each website gives the attacker at least a few tries to enter valid credit card information. Worst case, it takes only 10,000 parallel requests to guess the correct security code. I don't know whether to cringe or laugh at this. You generally don't even need to get the right expiration date. As long as the date you supply is in the future it will usually work.
The security code also can sometimes be skipped. This varies from region to region, but in the US the credit card companies do not actually require a security code match for card not present transactions. The merchant can supply the code, and if so, the credit card processing system will report back on whether or not it matched, but it is up to the merchant to decide whether or not that should disallow completing the transaction. Similar for customer address, by the way. The merchant can supply it and ask whether it matches, but whether or not a mismatch disallows the purchase is up to the merchant.
I think it also varies by processor, but I'm not sure on that one. One particular jerk merchant accepted my order for a few hundred dollars worth of car parts, then told me that he would only ship to my billing address. When I told him no and explained that my mail gets frequently stolen at that address, which is why I wanted my order shipped to the other address, he refused to cancel my order, and told me I'd need to call my bank to add the other address before he could ship my stuff. At this point, he had not charged my card. I told him that if he did charge my card, I would file a chargeback.
He charged it, I charged back, waited 2 months, and got a letter saying the chargeback was finalized and my refund was no longer 'pending'. Idiot cost himself probably 6% of the transaction both running it and paying for processing the refund, plus got a bad mark with his merchant account. He did all of this because he thought my transaction was fraud since the billing and shipping address didn't match (yet he refused to cancel it and charged it anyway). Gas stations also verify billing zip.
There are only 10⁴ = 10,000 four-digit security codes possible Yeah, that's not a big number, even manually, much less for a hacker. I went to school for two months and the TV in my dorm room had been locked down to a few channels by some parental security crap, presumably by a previous occupant. With nothing better to do, I manually went through codes until I found the right one and unlocked it to open up more channels for myself. It was only intimidating when I was entering random guesses at first.
As soon as I decided to just methodically go through all possible combinations, it only took me something like two or three days of doing this when I wasn't in class and was watching TV anyway. I am so glad I never tried to use BS like that with my own kids. >I'd bet that almost all don't have three numbers all the same and that there are probably more rules/conventions that would reduce the search space. You're correct that almost all don't have three identical digits, but that's just because there's only 10 of them - 000, 111, 222, 333, 444, 555, 666, 777, 888, 9 = 1% I doubt they would make up rules for determining the cvv, as it would only improve security until bad actors could determine the rules - then it would hinder security as there would be less entropy in the selection space. >there are no legitimate circumstances where someone would want or need to sell amazon gift cards at less than their face value Many credit card rewards programs offer Amazon gift cards as a redemption option. The points:value ratio on these is generally significantly better than the ratio on cash rebates, even when you consider the hit taken on sites like purse.
10,000 points might be redeemable for $100 in Amazon GC, but only $50 in cash, so even if you get the GC and sell them for $85, you still do better than if you had straight redeemed it for USD. I designed the fraud prevention for a major ecommerce site(PCI Level 1). We used to get hit with lots of card testing including bot nets. They are easily mitigated. First thing is detune your error messages.
Combine all the errors into one generic message. This includes AVS, CVN, and Expiration. I've see so many sites return the raw message back from the processor. We also actively black holed large blocks IP addresses including TOR exit nodes and open proxies. Before all the privacy people make comments. We're a store.
If you show up wearing a ski mask we aren't going to sell to you. Sometimes we go on the offense and detect the patterns/attributes for the botnets that allowed us distinguish them from real traffic. We didn't block them, we fed them bad data. That made them go away fast. Most important take away: Mitigating fraud will lead to higher auth success rates as you build up the reputation on your MID(Merchant ID).
Its not only important in preventing chargebacks but increasing revenue. Its opposite in my experience. Detuning error messaging will increase abandonment as users wont know how to recover from errors (Eg invalid CVV) - thereby decreasing revenue. Its especially true where something like 3D secure is in use and failure messages varied. Ive also never seen risk based authentication based on MID in place at issuers (Im in SEA it could be different in more developed markets).
Rather they have blanket bans on MID or categories of MID with high fraud-to-sales ratios. Payments processors and acquirers have fraud detection systems, but they will score not actively decline. So while someone abusing your service may land you in hot water, reducing their ability doesn't necessarily mean a higher authorization rate for regular transactions. I've had the same argument many times over error messages for login and forgot password flows. Being security conscious is a way of thinking that many people aren't really capable of and an even greater number have problem maintaining consistently. It's so ingrained in product managers to make their software as friendly as possible that they forget that sometimes their users don't have similarly noble intentions. This is also why social engineering is so successful.
When it's your job to be helpful, it's very difficult to be strategically unhelpful when necessary. The merchant is not just left holding the bag. The merchant has to buy the bag.and it is not a cheap paper or plastic bad. It is a fancy, expensive, designer bag. When a charge is disputed, the merchant pays a fee of typically $15-30, regardless of who wins the dispute. In other words, there are two possible outcomes to a dispute: 1.
Merchant loses. Merchant refunds in full that amount of the charge plus $15-30 for the charge back processing fee. Merchant wins. Merchants gets to keep the amount of the charge, but still must pay the $15-30 charge back processing fee. From the merchant point of view, the credit card system is very annoying in that regard. If anything happens that requires that someone gets screwed, that someone will be the merchant. The banks will not allow themselves to be screwed, because they run the system.
The credit card holder is a direct client of the banks, and the banks protect them to keep them happy. The merchant account provider, which is where the credit card companies actually send the money for the merchant's sales, and is the entity that the credit card companies turn directly to in the case of chargebacks or fraud, protects itself by holding back part of the money it owes the merchant. The merchant account provider ends up holding a buffer of sometimes tens of thousands of dollars of the merchant's sales. Worse, the merchant does not appear to be able to really know when payment from a credit card is actually final.
According to nearly everything I can find on the net and in credit card company documentation, the limit on how old a charge can be charged back is 6 months or 1 year. I know that is wrong because at a company whose payment handling software I maintain, we got a charge back on a transaction that was several months past a year old.
Another thing I saw that I would have thought impossible had I not actually saw it, was we had a customer who bought a subscription to a monthly service. The initial purchase went through fine (transaction comes back approved, and a day or two later shows up as settled and paid).
The renewal next month went through, and so on, for the next six months or so. Then we got a notice that the last several of these had not actually went through.
The issuing bank had told the credit card processor that the transaction was approved, but we were told it was really declined, and no money was actually transferred. Transaction processors also face fines if the dispute percentage is too high. They don't have forbidden business lists just because they don't like pornography or sex toys. They can also be defrauded by merchants too: Make a fake business, make some fake purchases to yourself and after you get your money, disappear. Then a financial institution is the one holding the bag. That said, it's absolutely true that an online merchant needs protection from fraud, way past what anyone that isn't Amazon-sized can do on their own.
There's third parties that do check prior to any processor. You can also rely on a processor that does more checking, or allows the merchant to made adjustments based on the level of risk they want. >They don't have forbidden business lists just because they don't like pornography or sex toys. Those are 'high-risk' mainly because of 'reputational risk', not because of chargebacks. Which I imagine is code for Visa or the banks thinking 'If too many people with traditional morals get into political office, they'll start cracking down on us if we do business with the sex toy companies.' There's also some bad history with old porn sites, since they used 0-days to install dialers on people's computers to rack up tons of money when they used their dialup to connect to the internet.
Hence the old 'I think my computer has a virus', 'Quit browsing those weird porn sites' retort you may have heard. They did other shady things which got Visa in a bit of trouble. It doesn't happen much anymore, but I suspect the organizational scars remain. You've insinuated that pornography or sex toys are often 'forbidden' because they have a high chargeback rate. But if you have 0 chargebacks after a few years, you still won't be able to negotiate a lower rate or to use a service like Paypal or Stripe. Because chargebacks aren't the reason. Visa and MasterCard charge you $500/year each as an extra fee too, so I suspect the Stripes and Paypals of the world can't combine them into their aggregate account.
A fee like that would seem to preclude even a specialized aggregate account, without a special agreement with Visa. Also, if chargebacks were the issue, I would expect companies that only take debit cards to be in a different risk category than those that take credit cards.
Debit cards have reduced fraud protection, so a Paypal or Stripe's underwriting should be more lenient for them. But I've never heard of Stripe letting you sell porn or of Visa waiving the fee if you only take debit cards. It could just be uncommon though. Plus, I believe both Paypal and Stripe ban selling porn even using e-checks, which is more evidence against chargebacks being the issue. There shouldn't be any restrictions on the ACH system, and even if there usually were somebody could set up a state credit union in Oregon or similar to handle it. That's part of it. The chargeback system is a complete joke, however.
I had one guy that I was very suspicious about, so I hired a PI to see if the item was visible in his small business, and take a picture. The tracking number showed the item delivered to the person, signed for with an known employee's name. I submitted this, as well as a picture of the item in the guy's shop. I still lost the chargeback.
Got my revenge in the end though.see below. A tip for anyone that's has a particular chargeback where they know they were screwed. If the issuing bank has any presence in your state.sue the cardholder's bank (or perhaps Visa/MC/AMEX) in small claims. In my case, Chase settled for the amount I sued for, which I made sure was on the high side. They don't like to spend money on corporate lawyers going to small claims.
Actually, it's not even close. 10,000 attempts to guess a 4-digit number are certain to succeed. 100 attempts to guess 100 4-digit numbers have a good chance of resulting in no hits. For each 4-digit number, you produce 100 different guesses (with no repeated guesses for that number, because that would be silly). There's a 100/10,000 chance of a hit, and 9,900/10,000 chance of a miss. The chance of missing on all 100 4-digit numbers is (9,900/10,000)^100 = 0.366 = 36.6%.
That's substantial! Guessing 100 numbers, there's a chance to produce 2 or more hits, of course. For US based transactions, AVS failures (address, zip) don't typically fail the transactions. Most often, the api has 3 possible return values 'Success', 'Success With Warnings' and 'Failure'. The 'Success with Warnings' will have some error codes for AVS failures (street address, zip). Usually the same for invalid CVV2. I've also noticed that cardholder name matching isn't universally supported.AMEX does it well, but VISA/MC is hit or miss.
Most merchants choose to allow for 'Success with Warnings' and then manually check them. It's hard to automate, because it's very typical for real customers to mistype billing addresses, CVV2, etc. One good example is small business owners. They, very often, use their business address as billing, even when the billing address is actually their home address. In short, you can configure for hard failure on address mismatch or CVV2 mismatch, but you're throwing away a lot of legit transactions if you do so.
That's entirely up to the merchant, not the processor (or the gateway, either of the banks, or any of the other middlemen). From the link you gave 'You will need to log into your payment gateway website and adjust these settings as you learn your customer profile and behavior.' Most merchants want to sell things, and don't want to constantly field complaints from customers (or bad word of mouth from lost customers), so they set them to rather loose settings. The fraud checks go through many middlemen each with their own systems, with their own bugs and limitations. Any programmer could guess a few. If the address is 'apt 2, 300 main street' entered as '300 main st, apt 2' (or vice-versa), it can fail. If the zip code is 9-digits entered as 5 (or vice-versa), it could fail.
Of course, the customer doesn't know exactly what pattern the system is looking for. If the punctuation is different, it might fail. If there are unexpected characters or encodings that any system or network in the chain can't handle properly, it might fail. If any of the systems is in a different country from any of the others, it might fail. In fact, AVS doesn't work in most countries (or at least didn't, last time I checked.) The internet brings international customers, but the payment systems aren't really internationalized.
So the question becomes, do we tighten this down to try to reduce fraud at the cost of losing 2/3rds of our regular repeat customers and limiting ourselves to only U.S. Unless the cost of fraudulent transactions regularly exceeds 2/3rds of your revenue and you're intentionally a U.S.-only business, probably not. Companies would rather ignore AVS and expiration date failures than go out of business. Fortunately, merchants and banks have realized that requiring 3-D Secure results in an abandoned shopping card. I rarely use my CC online. Asking me for my 3-D Secure password means asking me to log into my bank and use a physical second factor to set a new password.
Likewise, requiring 3-D Secure on my credit card makes me much more likely to pick a different payment method since I don't feel like doing the above. (Or rather, I might not even be carrying the phone/token needed for it.) Seems like someone has figured this out. I haven't seen a 3-D Secure prompt in a while. There's also no reason for me to like it: Without 3-D Secure, fraud is a minor hassle and I'll get my money back. With it, the bank may try to put the responsibility on me, even though I can't distinguish a real 3-D Secure page from a phishing page because they're all IFRAMEd per their official recommendations. >almost none of the American sites supported it There's just not much incentive to support it.
You have to make it optional, otherwise your conversion rate drops like a rock. And, if you make it optional, only a very tiny amount of customers ever use it.and the ones that do are VERY unlikely to be fraudulent users.
Thus, the shift in liability isn't really an incentive. The only way it would work would be to make it 100% mandatory. The checkout path would be harder on customers, but they couldn't choose to go to a competitor's site that didn't require it. Unfortunately, at least in the US, cardholder name matching doesn't work for most transactions. Only AMEX supports it. Edit: Offtopic rant, but as an online merchant this is the sort of thing that pisses me off about the CC situation.
They don't support other obvious things either, like passing in the shipping address and ip address so they can be used for fraud detection. Yes, there are outboard services (MaxMind,etc) you can use, but they are working with a small subset of transactions, so their algorithms and blacklists are incomplete. Actually, I have worked on the development of security software, but if you want a source, I suggest you start with the work of the researchers mentioned in the article. Among the facts there, you can find that Mastercard is apparently capable of detecting these guessing attempts, so as we are on the subject of sources, what is your source for your suggestion that this is an insurmountable volume-related problem?
You have a point about not casually attributing incompetence, but this does seem to be a particularly facepalm-inducing issue. I am willing to be corrected. >your source for your suggestion that this is an insurmountable volume-related problem I wasn't. But a problem not being insurmountable does not make you incompetent for not solving it (yet). Curing cancer is not insurmountable yet we don't call scientist incompetent for not having it done yet (at least I don't). And before you say it. No, I am not saying this is as difficult as curing cancer.
I don't know enough about the issue to correct you or not. I just know a lot of great software engineers who have poured their sweat and blood into systems only to be called incompetent. I've also seen open source developers develop brilliant pieces of software and then get called incompetent for a single bug. Because the bug was 'obvious' (in hindsight) That kind of attitude keeps people from taking risks. I personally think we need to encourage people to go into the tough problems and a lot of people won't if they risk being ridiculed for not solving them.
The situation is not remotely like the scenario you are concerned about. We (the e-commerce industry collectively) have a history of making many of the same basic security mistakes repeatedly, even though both the mistakes and the ways to avoid them are well-documented (SQL injection is a classic example, as is the use of easily-guessable secrets.) In my opinion (the source of which is me) the industry should be held accountable for its complacency and, yes, lapses in competence. Of course, being criticized by me in an HN comment is hardly being held accountable. I don't know if you're talking about the 3-D Secure / Verified by Visa system, but the major flaw of this technology is that the merchant is the only one responsible for putting it up or not. I used to work in e-commerce and my company simply disabled the SMS protection because it would harm sales and the platform would sometimes completely crash. On the other hand there is no way (that I know of) that I, as a customer, could prevent my card being used in non secured websites.
So this system makes legitimate purchases harder and doesn't prevent fraud. We need a different technology than credit card for online payments, they are not secured enough and any layer of security that we add around them won't work. Not aware of any cards specifically (outside of European chip-and-pin, but I don't think those usually work online), but this is the big argument for things like android/apple/firebomb pay. Make a purchase, then sign off on your phone (or fingerprint reader on your laptop). It obviously won't resolve the issue posed in the article, but it is definitely a step in the right direction and many of the major CC companies are integrating more and more. In five or six years I can easily see Chase and the like giving an option to only let the physical card be used in chip-and-pin mode and to require the use of an approved service for any contactless/online orders. Obviously the approved services thing is a concern, but not a huge one.
There are many parties that would gain from a better payments system. However the logistics of improving it are significant due to the number of highly regulated and kinda-fat and kinda-happy entities running the infrastructure.
Interestingly what has happened in India and China (success of non-bank payment wallets VS cards) is injecting a lot of the traditional players with a sense of urgency. Before this it would have taken a states intervention (Eg MEPS in Sing/MY) to improve acceptance through the launch of a new payments system.